Explain three specific examples of how you think formative research could be applied

ESSAYS – Preparation for HS 305 Test 2 1. “Let’s Stop HIV Together” is a communication campaign (from the readings, on CDC’s site). It is an anti- stigma campaign featuring individuals with HIV who share their personal stories along with friends and family. It promotes a call to Americans to join the fight against HIV. How would a health educator apply the concept of segmentation from communications campaigns to an intervention? Explain three specific examples of how you think segmentation could be applied to this campaign to ensure relevance of the message. 2. Your health office wants to develop a program like CDC’s “One Test. Two Lives.” It is a communication campaign (from the readings, on CDC’s site) to encourage health care providers to test pregnant women for HIV infection. You are not sure whether the CDC program is applicable to your community. You decide to conduct formative research to evaluate this. Explain three specific examples of how you think formative research could be applied to the development of a campaign to ensure relevance of the message to your community. 3. Answer ALL parts of this question: You have been awarded a grant for a community’s anti-bullying campaign, and you want to enlist the help of the local elementary school. The school has a very diverse population of students, faculty, staff, and administrators, and it strongly supports equality and respect. In this school, children are allowed to wear clothing and other symbols of their respect for their religions, such as hijab (head covering) for Muslim girls, and necklaces with a cross or a Star of David. The school would like for you to enlist the students at the school to assist with anti-bullying education in the rest of the community. What is one way that you might you help the students tailor their messages without stigmatizing or stereotyping any individuals at the school? Who will keep the project going after the funding has ended? Why would they be interested in doing so? What might be one specific barrier to the program’s sustainability? How can you apply a strategy based on theory to overcome that barrier? Be specific. In your answer, include the theory and the construct from the theory that you propose using. 4. Answer ALL parts of this question: You have been awarded a grant to promote healthier eating behaviors among NAU students. You want to enlist the help of selected students whom you believe would promote the campaign. The grant funders have asked that you enlist support from diverse student groups. What is one way that you might select students who represent NAU without stigmatizing or stereotyping any individuals? How can they help you tailor messages to reach the widest array of the student population in a culturally competent and respectful way? Who will keep the project going at NAU after you have graduated? Why would they be interested in doing so? What might be one specific barrier to the program’s sustainability? How can you apply a strategy based on theory to overcome that barrier? Be specific. In your answer, include the theory and the construct from the theory that you propose using. 5. Some students at NAU want to increase self-esteem among other students. They begin a communications campaign. The objective is as follows: By December 2017, 90% of all NAU students will report that their self- esteem is “very good” or “excellent.” Is this a good objective? WHY or WHY NOT? Be specific. Include reasoning as discussed in your textbook. 6. You have an effective intervention to promote screening for sexually transmitted infections (STI) at NAU. The health department wants for you to adapt your intervention for homeless teens living under bridges and on the streets in Flagstaff. Explain one strategy that you used at NAU, then explain how you would adapt that strategy for people on the street. You will describe two strategies total. In your explanation, include at least one construct from a theory to support each strategy. You may use the same theory and/or construct, as long as you explain how it supports each strategy. Underline the names of the constructs that you use. 7. One of the criticisms of communications campaigns is that it is difficult to determine whether behavioral changes are a result of the campaign or of something else in the social or physical environment. Explain one specific example when a campaign may look successful when it is not. In your answer, include other factors that may be influencing behavior change.

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8. Use four constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory (two individual, two environmental) to support an intervention strategy to reduce the use of cell phone use while driving. 9. Explain how your understanding of four network characteristics from the Social Network Theory may be used to support an intervention strategy to reduce alcohol use. 10. When is Social Network Theory better to use to support an intervention strategy than Social Cognitive Theory? Include two specific examples in your answer. 11. What are two critiques of Social Cognitive Theory? How would you minimize the effect of these problems in an application of the theory to an intervention strategy? 12. What are two critiques of Social Network Theory? How would you minimize the effect of these problems in an application of the theory to an intervention strategy? 13. Explain an intervention strategy that is based on reciprocal determinism. You may use any example you wish, but be specific. 14. Explain an intervention strategy that is based on vicarious learning. You may use any example you wish, but be specific. 15. Which communication channels would be most appropriate to apply to an intervention to promote physical activity in rural elderly populations? Explain at least two specific examples. 16. Explain three activities that are part of the four-stage planning approach to communication campaigns.