How is speciation different from evolution? Which is more common? Why?

Please answer the following questions in a 200-word response minimum. Try your best to reference the text I will message you privately for how to access the text book.

1. Is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium possible in nature? Why or why not?

2. There are two different techniques that can be utilized to insert genes into a model animal like the mouse, the Embryonic Stem cell method, and the pronucleus method. How would you explain the method(s) as applied to human cloning; and how would you describe the ethical and moral arguments of this type of research in humans?

3. A goal of using animal models is to explain the molecular detail of specific behaviors encoded in the human brain. How would you compare the developmental biology experiments on memory and learning using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as evidence about the evolution of a human behavior?

4. How is speciation different from evolution? Which is more common? Why?

5. Humans must respect nature and understand the limitations of using animals in research. How would you categorize animal hierarchy and their value in scientific research? What principles guide or should guide the use of animals in scientific research?

6. Assume that you discovered Caenorhabditis elegans that crawl significantly slower than others. How would you determine whether this behavior was due to an injury from the environment or to an inherited trait?

Please participate (respond) to the classmate’s answers with POSITIVE notable and educational input. (200 word minimum Reponses)

1. Nicole: I would argue that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is not possible in nature (but if it were, it would be extremely, extremely unlikely). The Hardy-Weinberg law is defined as a model that describes what happens to allele and genotype frequencies in an “ideal” population and also includes assumptions that would unrealistic to meet in normal populations. My understanding is that the Hardy-Weinberg model acts as an equation and can be used as more of a ‘baseline identifier’ to identify the other forces that cause allele frequencies to change. (Klug 651) The Hardy-Weinberg law is based on the assumptions of an indefinitely large population size, lack of immigration/emigration, presence of random mating, absence of selection and mutation, and equal rates of survival and reproductive success. (Klug 656) In order for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to be possible, all of these factors would have to have been met. However, evolutionary changes are inherent in populations and by nature, they will contradict at least one of the assumptions, with the most common one being natural selection (which is known as the “mechanism” or evolution) (Klug, 647).


Klug, William S., Michael Cummings, Charlotte Spencer, Michael Palladino. Concepts of Genetics, 11th Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions, 09/2014. VitalBook file.

2. Ann-Marie: Animals are important and they play many vital roles on the Earth. They are used for companionship, food, entertainment, clothing, and many more things for many humans. Many are used in scientific research that provide benefits in medical and scientific advances in identifying and treating diseases. Research conducted on animals also help us understand the environment, how it changes, and how these changes both positively and negatively affect us and other species. I personally believe that while animal research are helpful in many respects, there should be ethical standards used when performing research on them. They should not be used if alternative options are available and if their use can be avoided. There should be minimal or no pain inflicted if at all possible, and there should be strict rules and regulations for all facilities that conduct research on animals. These facilities should be regularly inspected and monitored to ensure they adhere to the standards.


Festing, S., & Wilkinson, R. (2007). The ethics of animal research. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research. EMBO Reports, 8(6), 526-530. Retrieved on 9/7/2016 from

National Research Council (US) Committee to Update Science, Medicine, and Animals. Science, Medicine, and Animals. (2004). Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); Regulation of Animal Research. Retrieved on 9/7/2016 from: