Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. Community health concerns of the 21st century include ___________. a. lifestyle diseases

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Community health concerns of the 21st century include ___________.

a. lifestyle diseases

b. health care delivery

c. environmental problems

d. All of the above.

2. Differences in health among different populations define ___________.

a. health disparities

b. population health

c. lifestyle diseases

d. social engineering

3. The organization in the United States with the main responsibility for improving health is


a. the Department of Homeland Security

b. the World Health Organization

c. the Department of Health and Human Services

d. state departments of health

4. John Snow’s removal of a drinking water pump handle in 1854 in London stopped a


a. smallpox epidemic

b. yellow fever epidemic

c. waterborne disease outbreak

d. cholera epidemic

5. The Shattuck report marked the beginning of the ___________.

a. implementation of Healthy People 2020 efforts

b. eighteenth century

c. modern era of public health

d. health resource development period 3

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

6. Physical factors affecting community health include all of the following except:

a. geography

b. community size

c. industrial development

d. None of the above.

7. Dr. Edward Jenner successfully demonstrated the process of vaccination as a protection

against ____________ in the 18th century.

a. smallpox

b. whooping cough

c. measles

d. rubella

8. According to the text, all of the following were the leading causes of death in the early 2000’s


a. cancer


c. heart disease

d. stroke

9. Which agency is a leading medical research center and the federal focal point for medical

research in the United States?

a. National Institutes of Health (NIH)

b. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

c. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

d. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

10. The power to arrest someone who refuses to undergo treatment for a communicable disease

lies with a __________.

a. scientist within the NIH

b. community health nurse

c. local health officer

d. member of the local board of health

11. The mission of professional health organizations is to ___________.

a. promote high standards of professional practice for their specific professions

b. provide services to people affected with various diseases and conditions

c. raise money for community health agencies

d. expand worksite health promotion programs4

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

12. The main reason for corporate involvement in community health is due to ____________.

a. the federal mandates for employee wellness programs

b. their tax status

c. efforts to keep infectious disease rates low

d. the provision of health care benefits to employees

13. The largest and most visible international health agency is the ____________.

a. Pan American Health Organization

b. United Nations

c. World Health Organization

d. Department of Health and Human Services

14. Funding that comes from the federal government to the state government is referred to as

___________ funding.

a. horizontal

b. vertical

c. top-down

d. down-top

15. One of the World Health Organization’s most noteworthy achievements was helping to


a. smallpox

b. chickenpox

c. polio

d. scarlet fever

16. An example of a quasi-governmental health organization is ____________.

a. the National Science Foundation

b. a county health department

c. the National Institutes of Health (NIH)

d. the American Cancer Society

17. The practice of assigning subjects to treatments or control groups in a completely random

manner is ___________.

a. cohorting

b. double-blinding

c. blinding

d. randomization5

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

18. The national health survey that is a state-based telephone survey of the civilian,

noninstitutional, adult population that seeks to ascertain the prevalence of high-risk

behaviors is the ___________.

a. National Health Interview Survey

b. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

c. National Health Care Survey

d. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

19. A probability statement about the association between a particular disease and a specific risk

factor is ____________.

a. an odds ratio

b. relative risk

c. criteria of causation

d. an epidemic curve

20. This term is derived from Greek words that can be translated into the phrase “the study of

that which is upon the people”.

a. historiology

b. sociology

c. epidemiology

d. biology

21. According to the text, waves of the plague occurred how many times in history?

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

22. __________ studies are epidemiological studies in which the researcher selects a large

number of healthy subjects who share a similar experience, such as year of birth or high

school graduation.

a. Experimental

b. Cohort

c. Observational

d. Descriptive 6

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

23. A pathogenic agent enters a susceptible host through a ___________.

a. carrier

b. portal of entry

c. portal of exit

d. reservoir

24. Adequate food supply and getting regular exercise are examples of ___________.

a. primary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

b. primary prevention of communicable diseases

c. secondary prevention of communicable diseases

d. secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

25. Community efforts aimed at preventing the recurrence of an epidemic is an example of


a. secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

b. tertiary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

c. tertiary prevention of communicable diseases

d. secondary prevention of communicable diseases

26. What is the third stage in the chain of infection model?

a. portal of exit

b. pathogen

c. transmission

d. portal of entry

27. Which of the following are indirect modes of transmission?

a. airborne

b. vehicleborne

c. vectorborne

d. All of the above.

28. Etiology is the ___________.

a. treatment for a disease

b. effects of a disease

c. cause of a disease

d. symptoms of a disease7

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

29. An example of a community gatekeeper is a ____________.

a. politician

b. teacher

c. member of the clergy

d. All of the above.

30. The evaluation that focuses on immediate observable effects of a program is ___________


a. process

b. impact

c. outcome

d. formative

31. The process of collecting and analyzing information to develop an understanding of the

issues, resources, and constraints of the priority population to better develop a health

promotion program is ___________.

a. creating an intervention

b. setting appropriate goals and objectives

c. pilot testing

d. a needs assessment

32. ___________ is the third step in program evaluation.

a. Analyzing the data

b. Reporting the results

c. Planning the evaluation

d. Applying the results

33. In the generalized model for program planning, ___________ is the first step.

a. setting goals

b. developing strategies

c. assessing needs

d. None of the above.

34. Which of the following tasks is a school nurse, who is contracted with an outside health

agency, less likely to do?

a. serve in a leadership role for health policies and programs

b. provide direct health care to students and staff

c. provide screening and referral for health conditions

d. All of the above.8

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

35. AFHK, an organization that works with schools to improve nutrition and physical activity,

stands for ___________.

a. Active, Fun, Healthy Kids

b. Action for Healthy Kids

c. Activities for Healthy Kids

d. All for Healthy Kids

36. The ___________ of a health curriculum outlines what will be taught.

a. sequence

b. policy

c. scope

d. mission

37. All school districts are required to have at least __________ full-time school nurse.

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. None of the above.

38. In 1984, the “gag rule” ___________.

a. barred physicians and nurses in clinics receiving federal funds from counseling

clients about abortions

b. barred only nurses in clinics receiving federal funds from counseling clients about


c. barred only physicians in clinics receiving federal funds from counseling clients about


d. was repelled

39. The decision in Roe v. Wade ___________.

a. made it legal for state laws to prohibit abortions

b. made it unconstitutional for state laws to prohibit abortions

c. resulted in the “gag rule”

d. made it easy for women to get abortions during any trimester

40. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that babies be breast-fed for the first

__________ of life.

a. three months

b. six months

c. year

d. month9

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

41. __________ is also referred to as crib death.

a. FAS



d. LBW

42. ___________ is the third leading cause of infant death.

a. FAS



d. LBW

43. The “Back to Sleep” campaign advised that infants should sleep ___________.

a. on their stomachs

b. on their backs

c. on their sides

d. Both b and c are correct.

44. WIC is a program that provides ___________.

a. health insurance for women and children

b. supplemental food and nutrition assistance to women, infant, and children

c. medical care for low income, pregnant women

d. childcare subsidies for low-income families

45. Adolescents and young adults are individuals between the ages of ___________.

a. 13 to 22

b. 15 to 24

c. 16 to 25

d. 16 to 23

46. For adolescents and young adults, approximately three-fourths of all mortality can be

attributed to all of the following except ____________.

a. suicide

b. car accidents

c. drug overdose

d. homicide10

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

47. Most of the physical threat to health for adolescents and young adults stems from


a. social class

b. genetics

c. disease

d. behavior

48. An increase in federal tobacco taxes is being used to help fund ___________.

a. political campaigns

b. the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)

c. Social Security

d. WIC

49. What are the leading types of cancer that account for the large numbers in the adult men

age group?

a. Prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer

b. breast, skin, and lung cancer

c. prostate, skin, and lung cancer

d. stomach, breast, and colorectal cancer

50. Individuals between the ages of _________ and __________ fall under the adult age group.

a. 23, 55

b. 25, 60

c. 25, 64

d. 22, 60

51. Eating, bathing, and toileting are examples of ___________.

a. tasks of daily living

b. instrumental tasks

c. cognitive tasks

d. expressive tasks

52. Important vaccinations for elders include ____________.

a. smallpox and influenza

b. pneumonia and influenza

c. pneumonia and HPV

d. HPV and influenza11

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

53. More elderly women are single as opposed to elderly men because _____________.

a. men tend to marry younger women

b. husbands die at a younger age than their wives

c. widowed men are more likely to remarry than widowed women

d. All of the above.

54. __________, considered to be an ideal model for large-scale long-term care facilities for the

elder, was created by Dr. William Thomas.

a. Eden Alternative

b. Paradise Alternative

c. Autonomy Alternative

d. Freedom Alternative

55. Today in the United States, the majority of Americans are referred to as ___________.

a. Caucasian

b. white

c. white, mixed-Hispanic

d. white, non-Hispanic

56. The Race and Health Initiative was launched by President ____________.

a. Bush (senior)

b. Clinton

c. Obama

d. Bush

57. _____________ have the highest poverty rates.

a. American Indians and Alaska natives

b. Americans of Hispanic origins

c. Black Americans

d. Pacific Islanders

58. The median income for ____________ has consistently ranked below all racial and ethnic


a. Hispanic or Latino Americans

b. Asian Americans

c. Pacific Islanders

d. Black Americans12

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

59. It was not until 1921 that more emphasis was given to providing health services to

___________ thanks to the Snyder Act.

a. Hispanic or Latino Americans

b. Native Americans

c. Asian Americans

d. Black Americans

60. A(n) ___________ is a person who flees one area or country to seek shelter or protection

from danger in another.

a. Alien

b. Immigrant

c. Emigrant

d. Refugee

61. Which of the following is the first out of the six priority areas of The Race and Health


a. Cardiovascular disease

b. Infant mortality

c. Adult and child immunization


62. Approximately 8% (24 million people) of children and adults in the United States have


a. diabetes

b. some form of cancer


d. some form of disability

63. ___________ is the leading cause of disability in North America and Europe.

a. Diabetes

b. Mental illness

c. Motor vehicle accidents

d. Work-related accidents13

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

64. Health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior associated with

distress and/or impaired functioning.

a. mental illness

b. mental handicap

c. mental disorder

d. mental immaturity

65. The fight or flight reaction occurs during which stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome?

a. the alarm reaction stage

b. the stage of resistance

c. the stage of exhaustion

d. all stages

66. All of the following are possible diseases of adaption except:

a. asthma

b. coronary heart disease

c. anxiety

d. ulcers

67. In order to reduce stress, one can ___________.

a. eat healthy

b. meditate

c. exercise

d. All of the above.

68. In the 19th century, ___________ was personally involved in the founding of many public

mental hospitals funded by individual states.

a. Dorothea Dix

b. William Tuke

c. Walter Freeman

d. Philippe Pinel

69. Deinstitutionalization occurred due to all of the following reasons except:

a. the development of antipsychotic drugs

b. legal considerations

c. lobotomies were successful

d. economic considerations14

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

70. Disorder characterized by distinct periods of elevated mood alternating with periods of


a. Schizophrenia

b. Bipolar disorder

c. Clinical depression

d. Tardive dyskinesia

71. Irreversible, involuntary, and abnormal movements of the tongue, mouth, arms, and legs.

a. Schizophrenia

b. Bipolar disorder

c. Clinical depression

d. Tardive dyskinesia

72. ECT, formerly known as shock therapy, is sometimes used for all of the following conditions


a. major depression

b. extreme cases of bipolar disorder

c. selected cases of schizophrenia

d. overwhelming suicidal ideation

73. According to this country, supernatural spirits are believed to cause mental illness.

a. Denmark

b. Indonesia

c. Tanzania

d. Cananda

74. Psychophysiological disorders associated with stress include ___________.

a. depression

b. hypertension

c. skin disorders

d. All of the above.

75. Deinstitutionalization from state mental hospitals began in the ____________.

a. 1920s

b. 1990s

c. 1950s

d. 1980s15

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

76. Treatment that involves intensive, individualized services over an indefinite period of time is


a. psychopharmacology

b. managed care

c. psychotherapy

d. psychiatric rehabilitation

77. ___________ has the potential to cause mental disorders.

a. Poor prenatal care

b. A car crash

c. Syphilis

d. All of the above.

78. Approximately how many teenage girls in the United States get pregnant at least once

before the age of 20?

a. one-half

b. 5%

c. 65%

d. one-third

79. The neonatal mortality period is death that occurs up to ___________.

a. 6 months after birth

b. 7 days after birth

c. 28 days after birth

d. one year after birth

80. For community organizing/building and health promotion programming efforts to be

successful, people must ___________.

a. be a part of the planning committee

b. be voluntary participants

c. be community gatekeepers

d. change their behavior

81. In creating a health promotion program, __________ are the steps taken in pursuit of a(n)

___________. They address who, what, when, and by how much.

a. goals; objective

b. objectives; goal

c. aims; plan

d. None of the above.16

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

82. A common topic of controversy in school health education is ____________.

a. alcohol

b. nutrition

c. suicide

d. violence

83. The general public has become more aware of violence in schools because of ____________.

a. the marketing efforts schools have placed on violence prevention

b. the number of high-profile incidents of violence in schools across the country

c. gun control laws

d. the Coordinated School Health Program

84. An unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or

other health-related event in a particular population defines a ____________.

a. pandemic

b. epidemic

c. outbreak

d. plague

85. Sometimes notifiable diseases are not reported to the local health department because

patients recover without a diagnosis being confirmed.

a. True

b. False

86. The ability of the health care system to prevent, protect against, quickly respond to, and

recover from health emergencies defines medical preparedness.

a. True

b. False

87. Approximately one-half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended.

a. True

b. False

88. Title V is the only federal legislation dedicated to promoting and improving the health of

our nation’s mothers and children.

a. True

b. False17

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

89. FMLA provides paid family leave for women and men after the birth of a child.

a. True

b. False

90. Diseases for which the reservoir resides in animal populations are called anthroponoses.

a. True

b. False

91. Noncommunicable diseases have complex etiologies.

a. True

b. False

92. Those who control, both formally and informally, the political climate of the community are

referred to as gatekeepers.

a. True

b. False

93. “To help employees learn how to manage their stress,” is an example of a program


a. True

b. False

94. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been banned from use in the United States.

a. True

B. False

95. Green Houses are a form of group living that limit the number of residents and offer a home

rather than a facility.

a. True

b. False

96. Adult day care programs are required to provide health care services.

a. True

b. False18

Final Examination

HCA 305 Introduction to Community Health

97. A drug that subdues a mental patient’s behavior is referred to as tardive dyskinesia.

a. True

b. False

98. Until recently, the federal government’s leadership in community mental health has been


a. True

b. False

99. Only about one-third of those diagnosed with a mental disorder receive treatment.

a. True

b. False

100. Chronic nutritional deficiency is a possible cause of mental disorders in some.

a. True


b. False